The way that Google keeps track of some possible vulnerabilities presented in Android apps is by constantly scanning them. The so-called “Verify Apps” function has been working that post-installation scanning since 2014.
But only just recently were you able to track what your Android phone has been scanning. Google Play Services version 10.2 or above will likely let you see those apps. Just check the Google settings, look into security and check the “Verify Apps” item.
There’s no actionable content in the interface — just knowing which apps got looked at recently might be security enough. You can, though, opt in for the framework to check on your sideloaded (or maliciously loaded-in) apps.
Google is also continuing to work up security on its Play storefront as well through reviews checking.